By Laura McAuley - Level 3 certificate in Personal Training
Warm-up is the preparatory component at the start of any exercise session. The aim is to prepare the body for the type of exercise to follow. A slow, graduated approach will allow all body systems to adjust effectively.
A good warm-up will ensure you get the most out of your session, reduce severity of DOMS and help you avoid injury.
We want to:
Mobilise the joints
Increase heart rate gradually
Warm the muscles
Lengthen and stretch the muscles
Rehearse activities in the main session.
A commonly used structure is RAM
This refers to pulse raisers - activities that progressively raise the heart rate. This gives the heart and circulatory system time to respond and prepare to deliver increased oxygen to the muscles once the exercise becomes more strenuous. As the heart rate increases, so does the body temperature. This increased body temperature improves the elasticity of intramuscular connective tissue, making the muscles more pliable and less viscous. This allows smoother and more efficient muscle contractions.
As we build intensity of movement with activation exercises, the nervous system is alerted to prepare the body. This results in increased speed at which nerve impulses travel though the body, enabling more efficient movement. In addition, metabolic activity in muscle tissue is stimulated leading to increased energy production and removal of waste products such as lactic acid. Using a graduated approach to the warm up will help to reduce lactic acid build-up in the early stages of the exercise session.
This is most often done with dynamic stretching movements and benefits the joints. The ends of the bones in a joint are covered with hyaline cartilage which serves to reduce friction during movement. This cartilage is nourished by the release of synovial fluid in the joint space. When the joints are mobilised through their range of motion, the temperature of the synovial fluid increases and flows more readily to lubricate the joint. This enables smoother movement of the joint. In the short-term this means optimal joint movement during the session and in the long-term means reduced wear and tear of the joint.
A less-trained athlete will need a longer and more gradual warm up than a well-trained athlete.
If you are newer to training, add in more mobility exercises and focus on building the range of motion more gradually. Initially as you add in a warm up, use slower, controlled movements and concentrate on maintaining posture, alignment and correct technique.
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